Dietary calcium, osteoporosis, DASH dieting and Calcium supplementation.

Bone mineral density, dietary calcium, calcium rich foods and risk factor for presumptive weak bones in old womenIt is well known that calcium regulates the majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium with calcium poor diets results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements or foods high in calcium. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet.

 

Osteoporosis is a cause for pathological fractures and loss of autonomy in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the identification of risk factors might serve for preventing the appearance of this pathological entity. Thus, scientists from the Hospital de Especialidades San Juan in Riobamba (Chimborazo. Ecuador) attemted to determine the association between loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and selected demographic, clinical and anthropometric features in the postmenopausal woman that can be assumed as risk factors of osteoporosis. BMD was determined in 2 regions of interest (lumbar spine & femur) by means of DEXA. The amount, and quality of dietetic calcium intake were estimated by means of pCa score that takes into account frequency of consumption of foods regarded as sources of calcium and mineral bioavailability. The nature and strength of the association between loss of BMD, on one hand, and presuntive risk factors of osteoporosis and state of dietetic calcium intake, on the other, were assessed.

 

Loss of BMD was dependent upon region of interest: Femur: Osteoporosis: 13% & Osteopenia: 51%; Lumbar spine: Osteoporosis: 49% + Osteopenia: 38%. Dietetic calcium intakes with calcium rich foods were independent of presumptive risk factors of osteoporosis and DMO “t” score in the region of interest. Odds-ratios for variables univariately associated with BMD were as follows: Age: OR = 2.09; BMI: OR = 0.278; and Body fat: OR = 0.553; respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI), and body fat (estimated by means of DEXA). Highest intakes of dietetic calcium concentrated among milk and dairy products, followed by meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, beans, and others legumes and vegetables. 

 

The scientists concluded that the loss of BMD is significantly associated with female aging, and an increased presence of body fat. Family history of bone fractures might serve for identifying post-menopausal women at increased risk of loss of BMD. Further research is required in order to establish the role of physical exercise and better intakes of dietetic calcium as protective factors against loss of BMD.

Factors associated with calcium intake and calcium-rich foods in Mexican pregnant adolescents

Scientists from Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca, (Jalisco, Mexico) studied dietary habits, socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with calcium intake and calcium-rich foods of pregnant teenagers.

 

In a cross-sectional study included 321 participants aged 13-19 y.o. who attended the obstetric division gynecology- the Hospital Civil of Guadalajara. All participants were healthy. Calcium intake and the intake of calcium rich foods as well as calcium poor foods was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and a 24-hour dietary recall. It also included demographic and socioeconomic data.

 

61% of adolescents eat < 80% of the recommended daily calcium intake. Therefore, their diets are calcium poor foods. Employment housework adolescents, consumption of milk, consumption of soft drinks, and low literacy level of mothers were the epidemiological factors associated with inadequate calcium intake parameters studied. The results suggest that calcium intake is deficient in the majority of pregnant teenagers and there are some risk factors that should be identified and treated. Calcium rich foods should be complemented in these cases.

Long term effects of physical activity and calcium diet on bone mass across the different stages of pubertal development

Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Calcium intake, and calcium-rich foods in the diet and adequate physical activity are of maximum relevance in child developement. However, the relative effects of physical activity,  calcium in the diet and foods high in calcium on BMC accrual during the process of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear.

 

The purpose of this Nebraska study was to determine the effects of calcium intake with calcium rich foods in the diet self-Reported Physical Activity and the Los bone accumulations during the Five Stages of pubertal development in a large cohort of Diverse Children and Adolescents North American Support weight. Bone mineral density in the Study of Childhood Longitudinal Study BE A mixed 7393 Observations on 1,743 subjects.

 

Annually, it was measured for DXA BMC, physical activity and calcium intake questionnaire taking into account foods high in calcium, and the pubertal development (Tanner stage) Examination. They used mixed-effects regression models to assess the activity paragraph calcium intake and physical effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage.

 

It was found that physical activity self-reports of weight contributed significantly to a mayor devengamiento BMC in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and white). In black men, the magnitude of the effect on activity of total body BMC accumulations vary between stages after calcium intake; The difference between high and low activity was greater in stage 3 intake of calcium had significant effect on bone accrual in girls only but not on african americans.

 

These results give no support for differential effects of physical activity and calcium intake, and foods high in calcium on bone mass accrual according to the stage of maturation. The longitudinal study showed significant effects of weight that takes physical activity to bone accumulations during all developmental stages of puberty.

Nutrition intervention of calcium-rich foods in community dwellings.

Dr. A. Bernstein and colleagues did a home-based nutrition intervention studied for 6 months in community-dwelling, with functionally impaired elderly. 70 men and women older than age 70 years were randomized. Two groups were set: a nutrition education intervention and a control group that received an exercise intervention. Nutrition education was designed to increase vegetable, fruit, and calcium-rich foods.

 

The scientists used a food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood measures of nutrients and carotenoids were performed together with a proper statistical analysis. Compared with the exercise group, subjects in the nutrition group increased their self-reported intake of fruits by 1.1 servings per day, vegetables 1.1 servings per day, and milk/dairy 0.9 servings per day.

 

The doctors in the study suggested that it is possible to improve the dietary intake of community dwelling elders. This dietary improvement includes more fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods. The scientists and doctors at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston also made some interesting recommendations: this increase in consumption of vegetables, fruits, and calcium-rich foods should be specific in order to meet the dietary pattern and lifestyle of each individual.