Bone mineral density, dietary calcium, calcium rich foods and risk factor for presumptive weak bones in old women. It is well known that calcium regulates the majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet.
Osteoporosis is a cause for pathological fractures and loss of autonomy in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the identification of risk factors might serve for preventing the appearance of this pathological entity. Thus, scientists from the Hospital de Especialidades San Juan in Riobamba (Chimborazo. Ecuador) attemted to determine the association between loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and selected demographic, clinical and anthropometric features in the postmenopausal woman that can be assumed as risk factors of osteoporosis. BMD was determined in 2 regions of interest (lumbar spine & femur) by means of DEXA. The amount, and quality of dietetic calcium intake were estimated by means of pCa score that takes into account frequency of consumption of foods regarded as sources of calcium and mineral bioavailability. The nature and strength of the association between loss of BMD, on one hand, and presuntive risk factors of osteoporosis and state of dietetic calcium intake, on the other, were assessed.
Loss of BMD was dependent upon region of interest: Femur: Osteoporosis: 13% & Osteopenia: 51%; Lumbar spine: Osteoporosis: 49% + Osteopenia: 38%. Dietetic calcium intakes were independent of presumptive risk factors of osteoporosis and DMO “t” score in the region of interest. Odds-ratios for variables univariately associated with BMD were as follows: Age: OR = 2.09; BMI: OR = 0.278; and Body fat: OR = 0.553; respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI), and body fat (estimated by means of DEXA). Highest intakes of dietetic calcium concentrated among milk and dairy products, followed by meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, beans, and others legumes and vegetables.
The scientists concluded that the loss of BMD is significantly associated with female aging, and an increased presence of body fat. Family history of bone fractures might serve for identifying post-menopausal women at increased risk of loss of BMD. Further research is required in order to establish the role of physical exercise and better intakes of dietetic calcium as protective factors against loss of BMD.